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Title: Perspectivas sociais e dominação simbólica : a presença política das mulheres entre Iris Marion Young e Pierre Bourdieu
Other Titles: Social perspectives and symbolic domination : women's political presence, in Iris Marion Young and Pierre Bourdieu
Perspectives sociales et domination symbolique : la présence politique des femmes entre Iris Marion Young e Pierre Bourdieu
Authors: Miguel, Luis Felipe
Assunto:: Mulheres - perspectiva social
Mulheres na política
Mulheres - participação política
Issue Date: Jun-2010
Citation: MIGUEL, Luis Felipe. Perspectivas sociais e dominação simbólica: a presença política das mulheres entre Iris Marion Young e Pierre Bourdieu. Revista de Sociologia Política, Curitiba, v. 18, n. 36, p. 25-49, jun. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbcsoc/v25n73/v25n73a04.pdf>. Acesso em: 10 fev. 2011. doi: 10.1590/S0104-44782010000200004.
Abstract: O artigo trata da participação política das mulheres e de sua presença no poder político. Nessa temática, discute a tensão entre o potencial emancipacionista prometido pela incorporação de múltiplas perspectivas ao debate político e a ação reprodutora do campo. Partindo das causas que, a nosso ver, são responsáveis pela relativa ausência de mulheres dos círculos decisórios e por seu "desinteresse" pela política, discutimos as perspectivas orientadas, de uma forma ou de outra, para a solução (melhoramento) dessa situação. O artigo organiza-se em três seções. Na primeira, defende-se a posição de que a via mais promissora para justificar a necessidade de presença das mulheres passa pelo entendimento de que os espaços de deliberação devem abrigar uma pluralidade de perspectivas sociais relevantes - um conceito associado, sobretudo, à obra da teórica estadunidense Iris Marion Young. Na segunda, discute-se alguns problemas desse conceito, em especial, certa ingenuidade que marca um ideal dele derivado: a geração de um espaço plural de discussão e de tomada de decisão em função da adoção de cotas eleitorais. Utiliza-se o conceito de "campo", extraído da obra de Pierre Bourdieu, para depurar as idéias de Young dessa ingenuidade. Na terceira seção, introduz-se um elemento adicional: a distinção, apresentada por Nancy Fraser, entre "políticas afirmativas" e "políticas transformadoras". Conclui-se, de forma preliminar, com um balanço dos limites e das potencialidades de uma política baseada na defesa da ampliação da presença de "perspectivas sociais". _________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT
This article looks at women's political participation and presence within political power. In this regard, we discuss the tension between the emancipatory potential offered by incorporation of multiple perspectives into political debate and the reproductive action of the field. Starting from a look at causes that, in our view, may be responsible for the relative absence of women in decision-making circles and for their alleged "lack of interest" in politics, we discuss perspectives that are, in one way or another, geared toward solving (improving) this situation. The article is organized into three sections. In the first, we defend the position that a more promising way to justify the need for women's presence is offered by understanding that spaces of deliberation should house a plurality of relevant social perspectives - a concept that can be most clearly associated with the work of the U.S. political theoretician, Iris Marion Young. In the second section, we discuss some of the problems contained within this concept, most particularly, a certain naiveté present in the ideal that derives from it: the creation of a pluralist discussion and decision-making spaces resulting from electoral quotas. We use the notion of "field", taken from Pierre Bourdieu's work, in order to cleanse Young's ideas of such naiveté. Within the third section, we introduce an additional element: Nancy Fraser's distinction between "affirmative" and "transforming" policies. As preliminary conclusions, we end with an evaluation of the limitations and potentials of a politics based on the defense of increased presence of "social perspectives". This article looks at women's political participation and presence within political power. In this regard, we discuss the tension between the emancipatory potential offered by incorporation of multiple perspectives into political debate and the reproductive action of the field. Starting from a look at causes that, in our view, may be responsible for the relative absence of women in decision-making circles and for their alleged "lack of interest" in politics, we discuss perspectives that are, in one way or another, geared toward solving (improving) this situation. The article is organized into three sections. In the first, we defend the position that a more promising way to justify the need for women's presence is offered by understanding that spaces of deliberation should house a plurality of relevant social perspectives - a concept that can be most clearly associated with the work of the U.S. political theoretician, Iris Marion Young. In the second section, we discuss some of the problems contained within this concept, most particularly, a certain naiveté present in the ideal that derives from it: the creation of a pluralist discussion and decision-making spaces resulting from electoral quotas. We use the notion of "field", taken from Pierre Bourdieu's work, in order to cleanse Young's ideas of such naiveté. Within the third section, we introduce an additional element: Nancy Fraser's distinction between "affirmative" and "transforming" policies. As preliminary conclusions, we end with an evaluation of the limitations and potentials of a politics based on the defense of increased presence of "social perspectives". ___________________________________________________________________________________ RESUME
Cet article parle de la participation politique des femmes et leur présence dans le pouvoir politique. Dans ce thème, on discute la tension entre le potentiel d'émancipation promis par l'incorporation de multiples perspectives au débat politique et l'action reproductrice du domaine. En partant des causes, qu'à notre avis, sont responsables par la relative absence de femmes des cercles de décision et pour leur « désentérêt » par la politique ; nous discutons les perspectives orientées, d'une façon ou d'une autre, pour la solution (amélioration) de cette situation. L'article s'organise en trois parties. Dans la première, on défend l'avis de que la voie la plus prometeuse pour justifier la nécessité de la présence des femmes, passe par la comprehension de que les espaces de délibération doivent loger une pluralité de perspectives sociales pertinentes - un concept associé, surtout, à l'oeuvre de la théoricienne américaine Iris Marion Young. Dans la deuxième partie, on discute quelques problèmes de ce concept, particulièrement, une certaine naïveté qui marque un idéal dérivé à partir de lui : la génération d'un espace pluriel de discussion et de prise de décisions en fonction de l'adoption de quotas électoraux. On utilise le concept de « domaine », extrait de l'oeuvre de Pierre Bourdieu, pour dépurer les idées de Young sur cette naïveté. Dans la trosième partie, on introduit un élement de plus : la distinction, présentée par Nancy Fraser, entre « politiques affirmatives » et « politiques de transformation ». Il en résulte, de façon préliminaire, avec un équilibre des limites et des potentialités d'une politique basée sur la défense de l'ampliation de la présence de "perspectives sociales".
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-44782010000200004
Appears in Collections:IPOL - Artigos publicados em periódicos

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