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Title: The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) uncertainty tripod in Brazil : assessments on model-based predictions with large under-reporting
Authors: Bastos, Saulo B.
Morato, Marcelo M.
Cajueiro, Daniel Oliveira
Normey Rico, Julio E.
Assunto:: Covid-19 - Brasil
Modelo SIR
Issue Date: 18-Mar-2021
Publisher: Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University
Citation: BASTOS, Saulo B. The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) uncertainty tripod in Brazil: assessments on model-based predictions with large under-reporting. Alexandria Engineering Journal, v. 60, n. 5, p. 4363-4380, 2021. DOI: Disponível em: Acesso em: 09 abr. 2021.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2 virus) is the global crisis of our time. The absence of mass testing and the relevant presence of asymptomatic individuals causes the available data of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil to be largely under-reported regarding the number of infected individuals and deaths. We develop an adapted Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, which explicitly incorporates the under-reporting and the response of the population to public health policies (confinement measures, widespread use of masks, etc). Large amounts of uncertainty could provide misleading predictions of the COVID-19 spread. In this paper, we discuss the role of uncertainty in these model-based predictions, which is illustrated regarding three key aspects: (i) Assuming that the number of infected individuals is under-reported, we demonstrate anticipation regarding the infection peak. Furthermore, while a model with a single class of infected individuals yields forecasts with increased peaks, a model that considers both symptomatic and asymptomatic infected individuals suggests a decrease of the peak of symptomatic cases. (ii) Considering that the actual amount of deaths is larger than what is being registered, we demonstrate an increase of the mortality rates. (iii) When we consider generally under-reported data, we demonstrate how the transmission and recovery rate model parameters change qualitatively and quantitatively. We also investigate the “the uncertainty tripod”: under-reporting level in terms of cases, deaths, and the true mortality rate of the disease. We demonstrate that if two of these factors are known, the remainder can be inferred, as long as proportions are kept constant. The proposed approach allows one to determine the margins of uncertainty by assessments on the observed and true mortality rates.
Licença:: © 2021 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Appears in Collections:ECO - Artigos publicados em periódicos
EST - Artigos publicados em periódicos
UnB - Covid-19

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