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Title: Estimating sex and age from a face : a forensic approach usingmachine learning based on photo-anthropome tric indexesof the Brazilian population
Authors: Porto, Lucas Faria
Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia
Franco, Ademir
Pianto, Donald
Machado, Carlos Eduardo Palhares
Vidal, Flávio de Barros
Assunto:: Antropometria
Redes neurais (Computação)
Identificação
Antropologia
Issue Date: 21-Aug-2020
Publisher: Springer
Citation: PORTO, Lucas Faria et al. Estimating sex and age from a face: a forensic approach using machine learning based on photo-anthropometric indexes of the Brazilian population. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2020. Disponível em: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00414-020-02346-5.
Abstract: The facial analysis permits many investigations, some of the most important of which are craniofacial identification, facial recognition, and age and sex estimation. In forensics, photo-anthropometry describes the study of facial growth and allows the identification of patterns in facial skull development, for example, by using a group of cephalometric landmarks to estimate anthropological information. Previous works presented, as indirect applications, the use of photo-anthropometric measurements to estimate anthropological information such as age and sex. In several areas, automation of manual procedures has achieved advantages over and similar measurement confidence as a forensic expert. This manuscript presents an approach using photo-anthropometric indexes, generated from frontal faces cephalometric landmarks of the Brazilian population, to create an artificial neural network classifier that allows the estimation of anthropological information, in this specific case age and sex. This work is focused on four tasks: (i) sex estimation on ages from 5 to 22 years old, evaluating the interference of age on sex estimation; (ii) age estimation from photo-anthropometric indexes for four age intervals (1 year, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years); (iii) age group estimation for thresholds of over 14 and over 18 years old; and; (iv) the provision of a new data set, available for academic purposes only, with a large and complete set of facial photo-anthropometric points marked and checked by forensic experts, measured from over 18,000 faces of individuals from Brazil over the last 4 years. The proposed binary classifier obtained significant results, using this new data set, for the sex estimation of individuals over 14 years old, achieving accuracy values higher than 0.85 by the F1 measure. For age estimation, the accuracy results are 0.72 for the F1 measure with an age interval of 5 years. For the age group estimation, the F1 measures of accuracy are higher than 0.93 and 0.83 for thresholds of 14 and 18 years, respectively.
metadata.dc.relation.publisherversion: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00414-020-02346-5
Appears in Collections:CIC - Artigos publicados em periódicos

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