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Title: Impasses da accountability : dilemas e alternativas da representação política
Other Titles: Accountability impasses : dilemmas and alternatives of political represent
Impasses de l'accountability : dillemes et alternatives de la représentation politique
Authors: Miguel, Luis Felipe
Assunto:: Representação política
Democracia
Accountability
Issue Date: Nov-2005
Citation: MIGUEL, Luís Felipe. Impasses da accountability : dilemas e alternativas da representação política. Revista de Sociologia e Política, Curitiba, n. 25, p. 25-38, nov. 2005. Disponível em: <http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rsocp/n25/31109.pdf>. Acesso em: 11 fev. 2011. doi: 10.1590/S0104-44782005000200004.
Abstract: Um elemento crucial das democracias eleitorais é a accountability, que garantiria o vínculo entre representantes e representados. Mas as esperanças depositadas nela não encontram mais do que uma pálida efetivação na prática política. A capacidade de supervisão dos constituintes sobre seus representantes é reduzida, devido a fatores que incluem a complexidade das questões públicas, o fraco incentivo à qualificação política e o controle sobre a agenda. Diante dessa situação, surgem propostas de transformação radical dos mecanismos representativos, que resgatam a idéia de "representação descritiva" e enfraquecem ou mesmo abolem a accountability. É o caso, notadamente, da representação de grupos e da substituição das eleições por sorteios. Embora prescindindo de instrumentos formais de responsividade dos governantes em relação aos governados, as formas propostas gerariam um corpo de representantes mais assemelhado ao conjunto da população e ampliariam a rotatividade nos cargos decisórios. O presente artigo analisa as propostas de representação descritiva sob o ângulo da relação entre representantes e representados. Embora muitas vezes padeçam de sérias fragilidades e pareçam inviáveis para implementação efetiva, essas propostas incorporam críticas importantes e que merecem ser levadas em consideração, a respeito do funcionamento da representação eleitoral e, em particular, da accountability. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT
One crucial element of electoral democracies is accountability, which guarantees the connection between those who represent and those who are represented. Nonetheless, the expectations that have been deposited in it find but its pale reflection in political practice. The ability that constituents have to supervise their representatives is limited, due to factors that include the complexity of public issues, weak incentives for political qualification and control over agendas. In light of this situation, proposals for the radical transformation of the mechanisms of representation that redeem the idea of "descriptive representation" and either weaken or abolish accountability have emerged. This is notably the case for the representation of groups and the substitution of elections with a lottery system. Although lacking in formal instruments for the responsiveness of those who govern to those that are governed, the forms that have been proposed would generate a body of representatives more similar to the population in its entirety and would increase the rotativity of decision-making positions. The present article analyzes proposals for descriptive representation through the prism of the relationship between representatives and the represented. Although they often suffer from serious fragilities and do not seem viable for effective implementation, these proposals do incorporate important criticisms and ones that deserve consideration regarding the functioning of electoral representation and, in particular, accountability. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ RÉSUMÉ
Un élément essentiel des démocraties lectorales est l'accountability, qui permettrait le lien entre les représentants et les représentés. Mais les espoirs mis dans l'accountability n'ont que de faibles résonances dans la pratique politique. La capacité des constituants à superviser leurs représentants est médiocre, à cause des facteurs tels que la complexité des questions publiques, l'inexistence de qualification politique et le contrôle sur l'actualité politique. Face à cette situation, des propositions de transformation radicale des mécanismes de représentation naissent. Elles renouent avec l'idée de « représentation descritive » et rendent plus fragile encore l'accountability, voire la suppriment. C'est notamment le cas de la représentation de groupes et du remplacement des élections par des tirages au sort. Bien que ces propositions se passent des instruments formels de responsabilité des gouvernants à l'égard des gouvernés, elles généreraient un corps de représentation assez semblable à l'ensemble de la population et elles permettraient davantage l'alternance des fonctions de pouvoir. Cet article examine les propositions de représentation descritive sous l'angle de la relation entre représentants et représentés. Bien que ces propositions ne soient pas très solides et s'avèrent irréalisables, elles renferment des critiques importantes méritant d'être prises en compte, en ce qui concerne le fonctionnement de la représentation électorale et, en particulier, l'accountability.
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-44782005000200004
Appears in Collections:IPOL - Artigos publicados em periódicos

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