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Title: Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia do complexo acamadado lago grande : evidência para uma suíte magmática mineralizada a egp na província mineral de Carajás, Brasil
Other Titles: Geology, petrology and geochronology of the lago grande layered complex : evidence for a pge-mineralized magmatic suite in the Carajás mineral province, Brazil
Authors: Teixeira, Antônio Sales
Orientador(es):: Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca
Coorientador(es):: Della Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky
Assunto:: Geocronologia
Geoquímica
Carajás, Serra dos, Região (PA)
Issue Date: 21-May-2014
Citation: TEIXEIRA, Antônio Sales. Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia do complexo acamadado lago grande: evidência para uma suíte magmática mineralizada a egp na província mineral de Carajás, Brasil. 2013. ix, 205 f., il. Dissertação (Mestrado em Geologia)—Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 2013.
Abstract: O Complexo Máfico-Ultramáfico Acamadado Lago Grande contém mineralização de EGP associada a níveis centimétricos de cromititos e sulfetos. Pertence à Suíte Máfica-Ultramáfica Serra Leste (Ferreira Filho et al., 2007) – região leste da Província Mineral Carajás, cujo principal representante é o Complexo Luanga também mineralizado a EGP. A Suíte Serra Leste situa-se nas imediações de Serra Pelada, importante depósito epigenético de Au-PGE (Grainger et al., 2002). Trata-se de um corpo intrusivo posicionado entre o Complexo Xingu e o Grupo Rio Novo, com estratigrafia magmática composta por estrato ultramáfico harzburgítico na base, seguido de pacote piroxenítico e espessa unidade de gabro no topo. O pacote ultramáfico apresenta textura primária cumulática produzida pela olivina e pelo ortopiroxênio, enquanto que no pacote gabróico a textura cumulática é dada pelo plagioclásio. Resultados de química mineral revelam magma relativamente primitivo - olivina (Fo82,5 a Fo85,7); piroxênio (En82,6 a En85,3); plagioclásio (An67,9 a An45,7). Ocorre cromita sob a forma disseminada e de delgado estrato de cromitito situado no topo do pacote de rochas ultramáficas. O empilhamento estratigráfico revela “trend” de diferenciação normal da base para o topo do Complexo e os dados estruturais sugerem que a câmara magmática esteja invertida. A mineralogia primária das rochas está praticamente toda transformada hidrotermalmente, restando relictos da mineralogia primária. Olivina, opx, cpx e plagioclásio estão transformados em serpentina, hornblenda, Mg-cumingtonita, tremolita, actinolita, talco, saussurita, carbonato, epidoto, clorita e quartzo. Estas condições metamórficas são condizentes com fácies xisto verde a anfibolito. O conteúdo em elementos maiores e menores, bem como elementos traço reflete a percentagem de cumulados de olivina–opx-pl-cromita nas rochas indicando o fracionamento do magma da base para o topo da câmara magmática. Os teores de ETR nas rochas do Complexo Lago Grande apresentam inclinação positiva, sendo suave para as rochas ultramáficas e mais forte para a unidade gabróica, denotando enriquecimento em ETRL e forte anomalia de Eu para as rochas do Complexo Lago Grande. Dosagens em cristais de zircão extraídos de leucogabros pegmatóides retornaram idade por Sm/Nd de 2,72 Ga, com _Nd (T=2.72 Ga) valores (−0.32 a−4.25), indicando contaminação das rochas por elementos das encaixantes. Datações U/Pb indicaram idade de 2.722±53 Ma para cristalização das rochas do Complexo Lago Grande e intersecção com a concórdia em 2.553±61 Ma, sugerindo atuação do processo metassomático hidrotermal IOCG sobre as rochas deste complexo. Há ainda outra intersecção com a concórdia em 600 Ma representado influência do evento Brasiliano sobre estas rochas. Os estudos focando a caracterização de EGP demonstram que nos cromititos predomina alta relação Pt-Pd-Rh e sulfo-arsenietos de Pt e Pd, enquanto que nos níveis sulfetados predomina baixa relação Pt-Pd e bismutet. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT
The Lago Grande and Luanga mafic-ultramafic complexes are part of a cluster of PGEmineralized layered intrusions located in the eastern part of the Carajás Mineral Province (CMP). The CMP occurs in the southeastern portion of the Amazonian Craton and is divided in the Rio Maria Domain to the south, where typical NeoArchean granite-greenstone terrains occur, and the Itacaiúnas Domain to the north. The latter includes the Archean (ca 2.75 Ga) metabasalt sequence of the Grão Pará Group, footwall to the jaspilite-hosted, giant iron deposits of Carajás. The PGE-mineralized intrusions occur in the Itacaiúnas Domain, which is also known for hosting several Cu-Au, Au-PGE and Ni world-class deposits. The Lago Grande Complex is a NE-trending medium-size (12-km-long and average 1.7- km-wide) layered intrusion consisting mainly of mafic cumulate rocks and minor ultramafic cumulates. The stratigraphy of the intrusion is overturned and, to the south, overlain by highly foliated metamorphic rocks of the Xingu Complex. The layered sequence consists of an Ultramafic Zone to the southeast, and a Mafic Zone to the northwest. Geological sections defined by drilling indicate that igneous layers have moderate dip to the SE, such that the Ultramafic Zone overly the Mafic Zone. The Ultramafic Zone, about 4 km long and 500 meter wide, comprises an up to 250 meter-thick sequence of interlayered harzburgite and pyroxenite at the base and pyroxenite at the top. The lower contact of the Ultramafic Zone with the Xingu Complex is poorly exposed, whereas the contact with the overlying Mafic Zone is gradational and characterized by interlayered pyroxenite and gabbroic rocks. The Mafic Zone consists of a monotonous sequence of gabbroic rocks with an estimated thickness of up to 1,000 meters in the central part. Primary igneous minerals of the Lago Grande Complex are partially replaced by metamorphic assemblages that indicate temperatures up to the amphibolite facies of regional metamorphism. This metamorphic alteration is heterogeneous and characterized by an extensive hydration that largely preserves primary textures and bulk chemical composition. The penetrative fabric when present is restricted to narrow domains of up to few meters, and igneous textures are identified in adjacent non-deformed domains. Metamorphic assemblages consist of variable proportions of Mg-cummingtonite, serpentine, talc and magnetite in ultramafic rocks, and hornblende and/or actinolite-tremolite, clinozoizite, chlorite, micas, albite and minor quartz in mafic rocks. The compositional range of cumulus olivine (Fo82.5-85.7) is consistent with a moderately primitive composition for the parental magma of the Lago Grande Complex. Cryptic variation of olivine in the Ultramafic Zone suggests the existence of one major compositional reversal interpreted as resulting of open-system crystallization involving replenishment by new primitive magma pulses. The sequence of crystallization in the Lago Grande Complex, consisting of olivine + chromite, orthopyroxene + chromite, orthopyroxene, orthopyroxene + plagioclase and orthopyroxene + plagioclase + clinopyroxene, suggests that the parental magma was silica saturated. Mantle-normalized alteration-resistant trace element profiles of gabbroic rocks of the Lago Grande Complex are fractionated, as indicated by relative enrichment in LREE and Th, with pronounced negative Nb and Ta anomalies. Nd isotopic data obtained for both mafic and ultramafic lithotypes render Nd model ages between 2.94 and 3.56 Ga, with variably negative _Nd (T=2.72 Ga) values (-0.32 to -4.25). The crystallization sequence of the intrusion and the composition of cumulus minerals, together with lithogeochemical and Nd isotopic results, are consistent with an original mantle melt contaminated with older continental crust. Different styles of PGE mineralization occur in the Lago Grande Complex, as indicated by PGE mineralization associated with sulfide-poor chromitite, sulfide-bearing harzburgite and venulated sulfide-bearing altered rocks. The latter is considered to result from hydrothermal remobilization of the chromitite-hosted and/or sulfide-bearing magmatic mineralization. In sulfide-poor chromitite of the Lago Grande Complex the PPGE are highly enriched and show a negative slope in mantle-normalized profile for PGE contents, whereas IPGE are moderately enriched and show a positive slope. Normalized profile of the chromitite sample from the Lago Grande Complex is generally similar to profiles from Middle Group (MG) and Upper Group (UG) chromitites from the Bushveld Complex, and very close to profiles and overall contents of the MG-4 chromitites. Platinum group minerals (PGM) occur mainly at the edge of chromite crystals in the Lago Grande chromitite, consisting mainly of arsenites and sulfo-arsenites. Sulfidebearing harzburgite samples with well preserved igneous mineralogy of the Lago Grande complex have low Pt/Pd (0.2 to 0.3) and high Pd/Ir (116.7 to 170.0) ratios. These ratios are very distinct from those obtained in the chromitite sample, thus suggesting that PGE contents in sulfide-bearing harzburgites and chromitites result from different magmatic concentration processes. Altered and venulated sulfide-bearing harzburgite samples from the Lago Grande complex have highly variable PGE contents. This variation is indicated by Pt/Pd ratio (< 0.02 to 8.0) and Pd/Ir ratio (5.0 to 810.0), suggesting that PGE were mobile and fractionated during hydrothermal alteration. Preliminary studies of PGM in venulated samples from the Lago Grande complex identified several minerals with variable contents of Cl and Bi. Mineralogical results in venulated and altered sulfide-bearing rocks suggest that Cl-bearing saline hydrothermal fluids, similar to those considered to be associated with the origin of both NeoArchean IOCG deposits and smaller Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au-W-Bi deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, may be involved in the PGE remobilization by hydrothermal fluids. The 2722±53 Ma U-Pb zircon age determined in this study for the Lago Grande Complex overlaps with the crystallization age of the Luanga Complex. This result supports the interpretation that layered intrusions in the eastern portion of the Carajás region result from coeval magmatic events. Similar styles of magmatic PGE mineralization, including PGE associated with sulfide-poor chromitites and PGE associated with disseminated sulfides in ultramafic cumulates, occur in the coeval Luanga and Lago Grande complexes. PGE profiles for chromitites of the Lago Grande and Luanga complexes are remarkably similar suggesting that the same parental magma and/or magmatic concentration process were involved. The distribution of different styles of magmatic PGE mineralization in these two complexes, as well as in other intrusions located in the eastern portion of the Carajás Mineral Province, support the concept that they belong to a PGE-enriched mafic-ultramafic magma type, designated the Serra Leste Magmatic Suite. These layered complexes crystallized from siliceous high magnesian basaltic magmas, similar to the parental liquids to the world's principal PGE-sulfide deposits, such as those hosted by the Bushveld and Stillwater complexes.
Description: Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Geociências, 2013.
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Appears in Collections:IG - Mestrado em Geologia (Dissertações)

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